Slovanský přehled č. 3/2018: Slavonic Review

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Z obsahu: I. Anarchie a anarchismus v Evropě, zejména v Rusku 18. až 20. století (historické, literárněvědné a filozofické reflexe) Anarchy and anarchism in Europe, especially in Russia of the 18th to 20th century (historical, literary and philosofical reflections) 1. TOMEK Václav K charakterizaci anarchismu 19. století prostřednictvím jeho vybraných osobností s. 487–515 To the characterization of the anarchism of the 19th century through its selected figures In the second half of the 19th century, anarchism presents itself in certain characteristic signs and manifestations. Although the representatives of anarchism themselves willingly emphasize the originality of their ideas and their resistance to doctrine, their ideas come closer in the radical critique of economic and social relations, in the criticism of the Church and religion, as well as the sharp criticism of the other political parties, but at the same time they differ in their individual accents of their negation of the existing circumstances. The anarchistic level of their critique leads them from individual negation all the way to demands for a radical transformation of society, to different ideas about the nature of revolutionary behaviour, and the character of revolutionary change. From there, various forms and concepts of the future “post-revolution” society, visions of the anticipated freedom, on the character of the new social relations developed. For the characterization of the anarchism of the given period, the personalities of its French representative Pierre-Joseph Proudhon, the Russian revolutionary Mikhail Bakunin, the former German MP Johann Most, the original scientist Peter Kropotkin and the university educated German socialist Gustav Landauer and the entirely differently thinking Young Hegelian Max Stirner were chosen. 2. HREBIKOVÁ Anežka Opoziční inteligence za vlády Kateřiny II. a Alexandra I. jako předchůdce ruských anarchistů. Příklad Alexandra Nikolajeviče Radiščeva a Nikolaje Ivanoviče Turgeněva s. 517–531 The opposition intelligentsia during the reign of Catherine II and Alexander I as forerunners of the Russian anarchists: The example of Alexander Nikolayevich Radishchev and Nikolay Ivanovich Turgenev Within the search for the roots of the Russian anarchistic movements, the study deals with the early aristocratic intelligentsia during the reign of Catherine II and Alexander I. Based on a biographic summary of the activity and analyses of the work of the writer of Catherine’s time Alexander Nikolayevich Radishchev and the participant of the Dekabrist movement at the beginning of the 19th century Nikolay Ivanovich Turgenev, the aim of the study is to prove the existence of the forming class of the intelligentsia and its clear influence on the subsequent Russian social or liberal movements, including the anarchists. The study points out mainly the problematic issue of serfdom, the critique of this phenomenon and the effort for its abolition. The question of serfdom is shown in the study as a theme, which most connected the early Russian intelligentsia and the anarchistic movement. 3. VLČEK Radomír Od Karakozova ke Kropotkinovi. Ruský anarchismus 60. a 70. let 19. století s. 533–558 From Karakozov to Kropotkin: Russian anarchism of the 1860s and 1870s The aim of the study is a discussion of the roots of Russian anarchism and its transformations in the course of the 1860s and 1870s. In the sense of the observation of anarchism in Russian space, the work has an analytical character. At the same time, it contains elements of synthesis and comparison, which place it into the wider European contexts. The study relies mainly on the primary literature, the authors of which were the followed Russian anarchists and the edited sources, but it respects the conclusions of the secondary literature, especially of neglected Russian provenience in the Czech milieu. 4.ROKINA Galina Viktorovna – TAJGILDIN Andrej V. The evolution of the opinions of Michail Bakunin: From the thoughts of the Slavonic Federation and Pan-Slavism to anarchism The article analyses the theoretical approaches and practical activities of M. Bakunin on the issue of the federation of Slavic peoples. The paper analyses the origins and evolution of his views on political pan-Slavism. Zápas proti chaosu ve světě i v českém prostoru. Rio Preisner a jeho chápání anarchismu s. 569–579 5. The struggle against chaos in the world and in Czech space: Rio Preisner and his understanding of anarchism This article on the understanding of anarchism in the work of Rio Preisner (1925–2007), theoretician, Germanist, translator and poet, wants to point out the character and scope of his production and focus on the question of how Preisner understood anarchy and anarchism, first in the background of his translation of the work of Hermann Broch and later in his analysis of totalitarianism. 6. DOHNAL Josef Obraz teroristy v povídkách Leonida Andrejeva s. 581–597 The image of a terrorist in the short stories of Leonid Andreyev The treatise is devoted to three short stories by Leonid Nikolaievich Andreyev, in which figures connected with a terrorist movement appear. The writer creates the short stories as models of extreme situations, which he uses to verify the degree to which the position of the warrior against Tsarist autocracy provides the right to regard himself as a person with a higher mission different from the other, “ordinary”. The analysis of the text of the short stories shows that he rejects the “superiority” of the terrorists to the rest and to a certain extent casts doubt on the effectiveness of terrorist acts. 7. ULBRECHTOVÁ Helena Anarchie, anarchismus a ruská literatura s. 599–641 Anarchy, anarchism and Russian literature The study follows the relationship of the terms “anarchy” and “anarchism” in the reflection of Russian literature, namely from the perspective of cultural sciences. The author provides a synopsis of the basic manifestations of anarchy and anarchism in Russian literature from the 19th century to today and guides the reader through its metamorphoses and transformations. 8. KRČÁL Petr – NAXERA Vladimír Několik poznámek k dialektice současného anarchismu s. 643–654 The text presented deals with the problem of anarchism as a political ideology. The text is divided into two parts. In the first, we focus on anarchism as an ideology and its different forms (right-wing and left-wing anarchism), which significantly differ from one another. in the second part, using optics of critical social sciences, we devote ourselves to how these forms of anarchism are perceived by the state bodies, where we select the current Czech Republic as the illustrative example, which thanks to the context of neoliberal political practice shows a fundamentally different position to both mentioned forms. II. Ruské revoluce 1917 The Russian Revolution of 1917 1. VYDRA Zbyněk Nekonečný příběh? Ruská revoluce podle současné anglosaské historiografie s. 657–676 The study deals with contemporary Anglo-Saxon historiography and its interpretation of the Russian Revolution (1917). The author analyses and evaluates the current trends in Anglo-Saxon historiography using the example of four new syntheses of the history of the revolution from 2017–2018. 2. KLEPÁRNÍK Vít Revizionismus a studium říjnové revoluce 1917 s. 677–722Revisionism and the study of the October Revolution of 1917 The article focuses on the stream of the historical study of Russian and Soviet history labelled as revisionism in Western historiography, where it pays special attention to the research of the October Revolution in 1917. It discusses the circumstances of the rise of revisionism in American historiography from the end of the 1960s to the mid-1980s. In the second part, selected starting points of revision are compared and distinguished in terms of ideal type from the previous totalitarian interpretation. The text points to differences in approaches and interpretations by revisionists, but at the same time emphasizes their unifying interest in the neglected social and economic conflicts in Russian society since the beginning of the 20th century and the interaction of social groups, political parties and state power. It also reminds us of the revisionist thesis that we cannot understand the events of October only through the ideological influence of the Bolsheviks or their allegedly conspiratorial efforts to acquire power. The revisionists, through archival research, have shown that the Bolsheviks gained greater and authentic support from the Petrograd masses before the overthrow of the Provisional Government than has been admitted until now 3. NYKL Hanuš Reflexe ruské revoluce v memoárech ruských filosofů-emigrantů s. 723–738Reflection of the Russian Revolution in the memoirs of Russian philosophers – emigrants Russian intelligentsia was a socially engaged group with a clearly specified attitude to the Czarist regime. As such, it fought for a radical change in the social order ideologically and often even with concrete steps. Russian philosophers were an integral part of the Russian intelligentsia and shared its group, mainly pro-revolution setting. At the same time, their conviction went through major transformations crowned in emigration from the beginning of the 20th century. With the philosophers, these metamorphoses are associated also with the overall change of the philosophical-religious beliefs. The paper deals with the relation to the Russian Revolution of 1917, as it is reflected in the memorial texts of three famous Russian philosophers, Sergei N. Bulgakov, Nikolai A. Berdyaev and N. O. Lossky. Whereas Bulgakov presents a series of memoir essays, three of which concern the revolutionary period, Berdyaev and Lossky are the authors of complete memoirs, where special chapters are reserved for 1917. The changes of the attitudes of the individual thinkers towards the Russian Revolution are mainly analysed in the article. 4. HARBUĽOVÁ Lubica Rok 1917 a ruská diplomácia (Z memoárov ruského diplomata Georgija NikolajevičaGarina-Michajlovského) s. 739–753 The February Revolution in Russia in 1917 sparked a broad international response and was also a breakthrough in Russia’s internal development. The main question of Russian foreign policy during the Provisional Government was the question of Russia’s further participation in the war. The paper focuses on approaching the main directions of Russian foreign policy in the period from February to October 1917 and analyzing the situation at the Russian Ministry of Foreign Affairs as it was captured in the memoirs of the Russian diplomat Georgy Nikolayevich Mikhailovsky. 5. ŠMÍD Marek Od encykliky Qui pluribus k encyklice Ad beatissimi apostolorum. Vztah Svatého stolce ke komunizmu v období před bolševickou revolucí v roce 1917 s. 755–770 From the encyclical Qui pluribus to the encyclical Ad beatissimi apostolorum: The relationship of the Holy See to communism in the period before the Bolshevik Revolution in 1917 The study presented deals with the relationship of the Catholic Church to the ideology of Communism. It is a relatively long and complex “story” of clashes, which has several levels – political, religious, economic, social and societal. It is possible to date its beginning to the middle of the 19th century, when the two sides confronted each other for the first time and openly, and when unsustainable difficulties for mutual good relations arose, because relations very soon moved from the political-religious plane to the economic and social sphere, considering the numerous working classes, when both sides tried to solve the social question on the basis of their own principles and beliefs. The ascension of Communism to power in Russia in 1917 deepened these conflicts, because the radical left-wing regime acted openly against the Church and severely restricted religious life in Russia. The popes of the first half of the 20th century thus firmly and repeatedly rejected Communist ideology, as evidenced by numerous encyclicals, most notably in 1937 when Pope Pius XI described communism as a dangerous, godless system that seeks a complete disruption of the social order and completely defies the Christian way of life.

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